# JAMB Physics Syllabus For  2023/2024 Academy session

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### JAMB Physics Syllabus For  2023

So many candidates have been asking me to post the latest Physics syllabus by Jamb. That is exactly what I have done. See the newly updated Jamb physics syllabus below..

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1) sustain their interest in physics;
(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;
(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;
(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.

### JAMB Physics Syllabus For  2023

Below is a detailed list of JAMB Physics syllabus/Content

### 1. Measurements And Units

TOPICS:

1. Length, area and volume: Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer Screw-guage, measuring cylinder
2. Mass
• unit of mass
• use of simple beam balance
• concept of beam balance
3. Time
• unit of time
• time-measuring devices
4. Fundamental physical quantities
5. Derived physical quantities and their units
• Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units
6. Dimensions
• definition of dimensions
• simple examples
7. Limitations of experimental measurements
• accuracy of measuring instruments
• simple estimation of errors.
• significant figures.
• standard form.
8. Measurement, position, distance and displacement
• concept of displacement
• distinction between distance and displacement
• concept of position and coordinates
• frame of reference

#### Student’s Objective On this Topic:

You focus while studying this topics are to:

• Identify the units of length, area and volume;
• Use different measuring instruments;
• Determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies;
• Identify the unit of mass;
• Use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s balance and chemical balance;
• Identify the unit of time;
• Use different time-measuring devices;
• Relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units;
• Deduce the units of derived physical quantities;
• Determine the dimensions of physical quantities;
• Use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;
• Test the homogeneity of an equation;
• Determine the accuracy of measuring instruments;
• Estimate simple errors;
• Express measurements in standard form.

### 2. Scalars and Vectors

TOPICS:

1. Definition of scalar and vector quantities
2. Examples of scalar and vector quantities
3. Relative velocity
4. Resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.

#### Student’s Objectives On This Topic:

You focus while studying this topics are to:

• Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities;
• Give examples of scalar and vector quantities;
• Determine the resultant of two or more vectors;
• Determine relative velocity;
• Resolve vectors into two perpendicular components;
• Use graphical methods to solve vector problems;

### 3. Motion

TOPICS:

1. Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random
2. Relative motion
3. Causes of motion
4. Types of force
• contact
• force field
5. Linear motion
• speed, velocity and acceleration
• equations of uniformly accelerated motion
• motion under gravity
• distance-time graph and velocity time graph
• instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
6. Projectiles:
• calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight from the ground and a height
• applications of projectile motion
7. Newton’s laws of motion:
• inertia, mass and force
• relationship between mass and acceleration
• impulse and momentum
• force – time graph
• conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary)
8. Motion in a circle:
• angular velocity and angular acceleration
• centripetal and centrifugal forces.
• applications
9. Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
• definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion
• examples of systems that execute S.H.M
• period, frequency and amplitude of S.H.M
• velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
• simple treatment of energy change in S.H.M
• force vibration and resonance (simple treatment)

#### Student’s Objectives On This Topic:

You objectives while studying this topic are:

• identify different types of motion ;
• solve numerical problem on collinear motion;
• identify force as cause of motion;
• identify push and pull as form of force
• identify electric and magnetic attractions, gravitational pull as forms of field forces;
• differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;
• deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion;
• solve problems of motion under gravity;
• interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph;
• compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration
• establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;
• solve problems involving projectile motion;
• solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;
• interpretation of area under force – time graph
• interpret Newton’s laws of motion;
• compare inertia, mass and force;
• deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;
• interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum and application
• establish expression for angular velocity, angular acceleration and centripetal force;
• solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;
• establish the relationship between period and frequency;
• analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M
• identify different types of forced vibration
• enumerate applications of resonance.

### 4. Gravitational Field

TOPICS:

1. Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
2. gravitational potential;
3. conservative and non-conservative fields;
4. acceleration due to gravity;
5. variation of g on the earth’s surface;
6. distinction between mass and weight; escape velocity;
7. parking orbit and weightlessness.

#### Student’s Objectives:

You should be able to:

• identify the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;
• apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
• give examples of conservative and non-conservative fields;
• deduce the expression for gravitational field potentials;
• identify the causes of variation of g on the earth’s surface;
• differentiate between mass and weight;
• determine escape velocity

### 5. Equilibrium of Forces

TOPICS:

1. equilibrium of particles:
• equilibrium of coplanar forces
• triangles and polygon of forces
• Lami’s theorem
2. principles of moments
• moment of a force
• simple treatment and moment of a couple (torque)
• applications
3. conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces
• resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions,
• resultant and equilibrant
4. centre of gravity and stability
• stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• apply the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar forces to solve problems;
• use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems;
• use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;
• analyse the principle of moment of a force;
• determine moment of a force and couple;
• describe some applications of moment of a force and couple;
• apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems;
• resolve forces into two perpendicular directions;
• determine the resultant and equilibrant of forces;
• differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium.

### 6. Work, Energy and Power

TOPICS:

1. Definition of work, energy and power
• forms of energy
• conservation of energy
• qualitative treatment between different forms of energy
• interpretation of area under the force-distance curve
2. Energy and society
• sources of energy
• renewable and non-renewable energy eg coal, crude oil etc
• uses of energy
• energy and development
• energy diversification
• environmental impact of energy eg global warming, green house effect and spillage
• energy crises
• conversion of energy
• devices used in energy production.
3. Dams and energy production
• location of dams
• energy production
4. Nuclear energy
5. Solar energy
• solar collector
• solar panel for energy supply.

### 7. Friction

TOPICS:

1. static and dynamic friction
2. coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.
4. reduction of friction
5. qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal velocity.
6. Stoke’s law.

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between static and dynamic friction
• determine the coefficient of limiting friction;
• suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;
• analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;
• apply Stoke’s law.

### 8. Simple Machines

TOPICS:

1. definition of simple machines
2. types of machines
3. mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of machines

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• identify different types of simple machines;
• solve problems involving simple machines.

### 9. Elasticity

TOPICS:

1. elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus
2. the spring balance as a device for measuring force
3. work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings
4. work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings.

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• interpret force-extension curves;
• interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a material;
• use spring balance to measure force;
• determine the work done in spring and elastic strings

### 10. Pressure

1. Atmospheric Pressure
• definition of atmospheric pressure
• units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa)
• measurement of pressure
• simple mercury barometer, aneroid barometer and manometer.
• variation of pressure with height
• the use of barometer as an altimeter.
2. Pressure in liquids
• the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = ρρgh)
• transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)
• application

### 11. Liquids At Rest

TOPICS:

1. determination of density of solids and liquids
2. definition of relative density
3. upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
4. Archimedes’ principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• distinguish between density and relative density of substances;
• determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
• apply Archimedes’ principle and law of floatation to solve problems

### 12. Temperature and Its Measurement

TOPICS:

1. concept of temperature
2. thermometric properties
3. calibration of thermometers
4. temperature scales -Celsius and Kelvin.
5. types of thermometers
6. conversion from one scale of temperature to another

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• identify thermometric properties of materials that are used for different thermometers;
• calibrate thermometers;
• differentiate between temperature scales e.g Celsius and Kelvin.
• compare the types of thermometers;
• convert from one scale of temperature to another.

### 13. Thermal Expansion

TOPICS:

1. Solids
• definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities
• effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines
• relationship between different expansivities
2. Liquids
• volume expansivity
• real and apparent expansivities
• determination of volume expansivity
• anomalous expansion of water

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• determine linear and volume expansivities;
• assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities
• determine the relationship between different expansivities.
• determine volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids;
• analyse the anomalous expansion of water.

### 14. Gas Laws

TOPICS:

1. Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
2. Charles’ law (isobaric process)
3. Pressure law (volumetric process
4. absolute zero of temperature
5. general gas equation (PVTPVT = constant)
6. ideal gas equation Eg. Pv = nRT
7. Van der waal gas

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• interpret the gas laws;
• use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.
• interpret Van der waal equation for one mole of a real gas

### 15. Quantity of Heat

TOPICS:

1. heat as a form of energy
2. definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
3. determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method and Newton’s law of cooling

#### Student’s Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;
• determine heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods;
• solve numerical problems.

### 16. Change of State

TOPICS:

1. latent heat
2. specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
3. melting, evaporation and boiling
4. the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points.
5. (application in appliances

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
• differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;
• examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.
• solve numerical problems

### 17. Vapours

TOPICS:

1. unsaturated and saturated vapours
2. relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
3. determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method
4. formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
5. study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity
6. hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours;
• relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;
• determine S.V.P by barometer tube method
• differentiate between dew point, humidity and relative humidity;
• estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.
• solve numerical problems

### 18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

TOPICS:

1. Molecular nature of matter
• atoms and molecules
• molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact etc
• examples and applications.
2. Kinetic Theory
• assumptions of the kinetic theory
• using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between atoms and molecules;
• use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion , diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;
• examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;
• interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases Boyle’s law, Charles law melting, boiling vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.

### 19. Heat Transfer

TOPICS:

1. conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer
2. temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
3. effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.
4. the conductivities of common materials.
6. land and sea breeze
7. engines

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer;
• solve problems on temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux;
• assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
• compare the conductivities of common materials;
• relate the component part of the working of the thermos flask;
• differentiate between land and sea breeze.
• to analyse the principles of operating internal combustion jet engines, rockets

### 20. Waves

TOPICS:

1. Production and Propagation
• wave motion,
• vibrating systems as source of waves
• waves as mode of energy transfer
• distinction between particle motion and wave motion
• relationship between frequency, wavelength and wave velocity V = f λ
• phase difference, wave number and wave vector
• progressive wave equation e.g Y=Asin2πλ(vt±x)Y=Asin⁡2πλ(vt±x)
2. Classification
• types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves
• longitudinal and transverse waves
• stationary and progressive waves
• examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.
3. Characteristics/Properties
• reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane Polarization
• superposition of waves e.g interference
• beats
• Doppler effects (qualitative treatment only)

### 21. Propagation of Sound Waves

TOPICS:

1. the necessity for a material medium
2. speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
3. reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications
4. disadvantages of echoes and reverberations

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• determine the need for a material medium in the propagation of sound waves;
• compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
• relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air;
• solve problem on echoes, reverberation and speed
• solve problems on echo, reverberation and speed of sound

### 22. Characteristics of Sound Waves

TOPICS:

1. noise and musical notes
2. quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and their application to musical instruments;
3. simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns F0=12LTμ−−√F0=12LTμ; (μ=mlμ=ml)
4. acoustic examples of resonance
5. frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between noise and musical notes;
• analyze quality, pitch, intensity and loudness of sound notes;
• evaluate the application of (ii) above in the construction of musical instruments;
• identify overtones by vibrating strings and air columns;
• itemize acoustical examples of resonance;
• determine the frequencies of notes emitted by air columns in open and closed pipes in relation to their lengths.

### 23. Light Energy

TOPICS:

1. Sources of Light:
• natural and artificial sources of light
• luminous and non-luminous objects
2. Propagation of light
• speed, frequency and wavelength of light
• formation of shadows and eclipse
• the pin-hole camera.

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• compare the natural and artificial sources of light;
• differentiate between luminous and non luminous objects;
• relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light;
• interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;
• solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.

### 24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

TOPICS:

• laws of reflection.
• application of reflection of light
• formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams
• use of the mirror formula 1f=1u+1v1f=1u+1v
• linear magnification

### 25. Refraction of Light Through at Plane and Curved Surfaces

TOPICS:

1. Explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media.
• laws of refraction
• definition of refractive index of a medium
• determination of refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law
• real and apparent depth and lateral displacement
• critical angle and total internal reflection
2. Glass Prism
• use of the minimum deviation formula U=sin[A+D2]sin[A2]U=sin⁡[A+D2]sin⁡[A2]
• type of lenses
• use of lens formula 1f=1u+1v1f=1u+1v and Newton’s formula (F22 = ab)
• magnification

### 26. Optical Instruments

TOPICS:

• the principles of microscopes, telescopes, projectors, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required)
• power of a lens
• angular magnification
• near and far points
• sight defects and their corrections

### 27. Dispersion of light and colours

TOPICS:

1. Dispersion of white light by a triangular prism
• production of pure spectrum
• colour mixing by addition and subtraction
• colour of objects and colour filters
• rainbow
2. Electromagnetic spectrum
• description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.

### 28. Electrostatics

TOPICS:

1. existence of positive and negative charges in matter
2. charging a body by friction, contact and induction
3. electroscope
4. Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric field and potential
5. electric field intensity and potential difference
6. electric discharge and lightning

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• identify charges;
• examine uses of an electroscope;
• apply Coulomb’s square law of electrostatics to solve problems;
• deduce expressions for electric field intensity and potential difference;
• identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges;
• analyse the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors.

### 29. Capacitors

TOPICS:

1. Types and functions of capacitors
2. parallel plate capacitors
3. capacitance of a capacitor
4. the relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates. ( C=EAdC=EAd )
5. capacitors in series and parallel
6. energy stored in a capacitor

### 30. Electric Cells

TOPICS:

1. simple voltaic cell and its defects;
2. Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
3. lead -acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron (Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium
4. maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required)
5. arrangement of cells
6. Efficiency of a cell

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their correction
• compare different types of cells including solar cell;
• solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells.

### 31. Current Electricity

TOPICS:

1. electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost Volt
2. Ohm’s law
3. measurement of resistance
4. meter bridge
5. resistance in series and in parallel and their combination
6. the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.
7. electrical networks

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between emf, p.d., current and internal resistant of a cell;
• apply Ohm’s law to solve problems;
• use metre bridge to calculate resistance;
• compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors;
• determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor;
• measure emf. current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer.
• identify the advantages of the potentiometer
• apply Kirchoff’s law in electrical networks

### 32. Electrical Energy and Power

TOPICS:

1. concepts of electrical energy and power
2. commercial unit of electric energy and power
3. electric power transmission
4. heating effects of electric current.
5. electrical wiring of houses
6. use of fuses

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;
• analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;
• identify the heating effects of current and its uses;
• identify the advantages of parallel arrangement over series
• determine the fuse rating

### 33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields

TOPICS:

1. natural and artificial magnets
2. magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
3. methods of making magnets and demagnetization
4. concept of magnetic field
5. magnetic field of a permanent magnet
6. magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid
7. properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination
8. flux and flux density
9. variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface
10. applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.

### 34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

TOPICS:

1. quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current-carrying conductors
2. force on a charge moving in a magnetic field;
3. the d. c. motor
4. electromagnets
5. carbon microphone
6. moving coil and moving iron instruments
7. conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers
8. sensitivity of a galvanometer

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule;
• interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel current-carrying conductors using diagrams;
• determine the relationship between the force, magnetic field strength, velocity and the angle through which the charge enters the field;
• interpret the working of the d. c. motor;
• analyse the principle of electromagnets and give examples of its application;
• compare moving iron and moving coil instruments;
• convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter.
• identify the factors affecting the sensitivity of a galvanometer

### 35. Electromagnetic Induction

TOPICS:

1. Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
• factors affecting induced emf
• Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy
• A.C. and D.C generators
• transformers
• the induction coil
2. Inductance
• explanation of inductance
• unit of inductance
• energy stored in an inductor E=12I2LE=12I2L
• application/uses of inductors
3. Eddy Current
• reduction of eddy current
• applications of eddy current

### 36. Simple A. C. Circuits

TOPICS:

1. explanation of a.c. current and voltage
2. peak and r.m.s. values
3. a.c. source connected to a resistor;
4. a.c source connected to a capacitor- capacitive reactance
5. a.c source connected to an inductor inductive reactance
6. series R-L-C circuits
7. vector diagram, phase angle and power factor
8. resistance and impedance
9. effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
10. resonance and resonance frequency Fo=12πLC√Fo=12πLC

### 37. Conduction of Electricity Through;

TOPICS:

1. liquids
• electrolytes and non-electrolyte
• concept of electrolysis
• application of electrolysis, e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
2. Gases
• discharge through gases (qualitative treatment only)
• application of conduction of electricity through gases

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes;
• analyse the processes of electrolysis
• apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve problems;
• analyse discharge through gases;
• determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.

### 38. Elementary Modern Physics

TOPICS:

1. models of the atom and their limitations
2. elementary structure of the atom;
3. energy levels and spectra
4. thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
5. Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
6. applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects
7. simple method of production of x-rays
8. properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays
9. half-life and decay constant
10. simple ideas of production of energy by fusion and fission
11. binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s Energy equation [ΔE=ΔMC2ΔE=ΔMC2]
12. wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
13. electron diffraction
14. the uncertainty principle

### 39. Introductory Electronics

TOPICS:

1. distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required)
2. intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
3. uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification
4. n-type and p-type semiconductors
5. elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors

#### Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

• differentiate between conductors, semi- conductors and insulators;
• distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
• distinguish between electron and hole carriers;
• distinguish between n-type and p-type semiconductor;
• analyse diodes and transistor
• relate diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification.