Dermatitis: Causes of Dermatitis



General Causes

System of defense: Your immune system can sometimes overreact. Your immune system responds to seemingly insignificant irritants or allergens if you have atopic dermatitis. Inflammation results from this.


Genetics: According to research, you are more likely to develop dermatitis if other members of your family do. Additionally, scientists have discovered alterations in the genes that govern a protein that supports the maintenance of healthy skin in your body. If such proteins are not present in typical amounts, your skin will not remain healthy.


Environment: Your immune system may be influenced by your environment to alter your skin's barrier of defense. More moisture escapes as a result, which can cause dermatitis. Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke are two examples of potential environmental causes. It's also possible to find fragrances in some soaps and skincare products.


Exposure: Chemical and other irritating exposure can result in some kinds of dermatitis. For instance, fluoride exposure from water or toothpaste might result in perioral dermatitis.

Causes Based on Types


Allergic Contact Dermatitis


  • .A type 4 or delayed hypersensitivity reaction, allergic contact dermatitis develops 48–72 hours after exposure to the allergen. To trigger the immune system and result in dermatitis, CD4+ T-lymphocytes that recognize an antigen on the skin's surface release cytokines. Note:


  • In contrast to internal or dietary sources, an allergen on the skin is the primary cause of contact allergy.


  • The specific allergen, which is innocuous to those who are not sensitive to it, only causes reactions in a small percentage of people.


  • Years of exposure to the allergen may have passed without their developing dermatitis.


  • Dermatitis can be brought on by contact with very small amounts of an allergen.


  • Patients with reduced skin barrier function, such as those with leg ulcers, perianal dermatitis, or chronic irritant contact dermatitis, are more likely to develop allergic contact dermatitis.


  • Patients who have deficient filaggrin, a structural protein in the stratum corneum, as a result of atopic dermatitis are at significant risk of additionally developing allergic contact dermatitis.


Irritant Contact Dermatitis


  • When chemical or physical irritants harm the skin surface more quickly than the skin can heal, irritant contact dermatitis occurs. Chemical irritants can breach the skin barrier and cause inflammation when they eliminate the oils and natural moisturizing components from the skin's outer layer.


  • The following factors can affect the intensity and progression of dermatitis:


  • Concentration, quantity, and irritating characteristics


  • Exposure length and frequency, such as brief, high-intensity exposures or frequent, low-intensity exposures


  • Skin susceptibility factors such as previous skin damage or an atopic inclination


  • Hand scrubbing and mechanical harm


  • environmental elements like humidity or excessive temperature


Atopic Dermatitis

AD's precise cause is uncertain. You cannot spread the rash to someone else because AD is not contagious.


The fundamental theory for AD holds that an improperly focused immune response causes inflammation. The excessive number of inflammatory cells produced by this immune response in your skin contributes to several of AD's symptoms.


Due to changed skin barriers, people with AD often experience dry skin. Water loss and irritant penetration are more likely to occur on AD skin. All of this causes red, itchy rashes to appear.


Although there are many potential triggers for AD flare-ups, typical environmental and lifestyle triggers include:

  • long, steamy baths or showers

  • itching perspiration chilly, dry, and climate

  • detergents, cleansers, and soaps

  • wool and artificial textiles

  • bodily irritants (dirt, sand, smoke)

  • allergens (pollen, dander, dust) (pollen, dander, dust)

  • stress from a hard workout


Hand Eczema


Irritants and chemicals:

Eczema on the hands is more common in those whose jobs demand constant exposure to water, solvents, detergents, other chemicals, heat, cold, or friction. Healthcare professionals, hairstylists, housekeepers, construction workers, chefs, and those in the industrial industries, for instance, are more likely to experience it.



According to the AAD, routinely washing and drying your hands can raise your chance of getting hand eczema.


Some water lingers on the skin even after drying the hands. The natural oils in the skin are diminished when they evaporate. Hot water washing frequently can cause eczema and further reduce the amount of these oils in the skin. Instead, one should use lukewarm water.


Additionally, often washing one's hands and having a compromised skin barrier can increase one's risk of becoming allergic to whatever one comes into touch with.


The chemicals cortisol and epinephrine are produced by the body when a person is under stress. These harm the immune system and inflame the skin.


A person may occasionally acquire dyshidrotic eczema as a result of being under a lot of stress. This is a typical type of eczema that results in itchy skin blisters.


Dehydration and chilly conditions:

Winter's dry air and sharp temperature swings can dehydrate the skin and cause flare-ups of eczema. This occurs, for instance, when people shift from a cold outdoor environment to a room with heating without taking off their garments. The air from heaters might further dry out your skin.




Neurodermatitis has an underlying cause that is unclear. The itch, however, has been noticed to begin during periods of extremely high stress, worry, emotional trauma, or melancholy. Even after the emotional stress has subsided or stopped, the itching can occasionally persist.


Other potential causes of neurodermatitis include:


  • nerve damage.

  • Virus bites.

  • dry skin

  • wearing constrictive clothing, especially if it is made of synthetic fiber like rayon or polyester. These elements may lead to an overreaction and itching in sensitive skin.

  • other skin conditions: Eczema and psoriasis can occasionally lead to neurodermatitis.


Nummular Dermatitis


Dermatologists are uncertain of the nummular dermatitis' precise cause. A few potential causes of the condition include:


  • Allergies to components found in clothing and cosmetics, such as metals or chemicals


  • Other skin disorders including atopic dermatitis and dry skin


  • skin injuries like bug bites or scrapes


  • dry, chilly conditions


Seborrheic Dermatitis


Seborrheic dermatitis' precise cause is unknown to specialists. It seems to be a mixture of various things, such as:


  • Stress


  • Your ancestry


  • A harmless yeast that typically resides on your skin


  • Specific medical issues and medications


  • Dry, chilly conditions


  • Immune system reaction


  • It is not brought on by an allergy or being filthy.

Stasis Dermatitis 


People who suffer from chronic venous insufficiency or other disorders that reduce blood flow to the legs are more likely to develop stasis dermatitis.


When a venous blockage or malfunctioning valves cause high blood pressure, it occurs Trusted Source. Inflammation brought on by this can result in skin changes like ulcers.


For instance, the valves in the leg veins do not function properly in chronic venous insufficiency. Blood may go backward and collect in the lower legs as a result. The pressure and swelling in the veins as well as the stasis dermatitis symptoms grow due to this pooling.

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